1. Advances in remote sensing methods, techniques and products

1.1. Advances in EO-base retrievals of hydrological surfaces and sub-surface variables: water bodies and water level elevations, river discharge, runoff, irrigation, evaporation, soil moisture, ground water variations, total water storage.

1.2 Advances in atmosphere satellite-based observations, rainfall, clouds, clouds-aerosol interactions, water vapour and water vapour isotopologues.

2. Advances in the use of EO for land surface and hydrological modelling 

2.1 Advances in the use of EO to enhance hydrological modelling.

2.2 Hyper-resolution hydrology (towards continental scale high resolution hydrological modelling).

2.3 Advances in the use of EO for Land surface modelling and reanalysis.

3. Advances in science and process understanding

3.1 Advances in observing, understanding and predicting the role of the water cycle in the Earth and climate system.

3.2 Observing and assessing the impact of human activities in the water cycle at global to local scales (water consumption, agriculture, industry, energy).

3.3 Understanding the carbon-water-energy nexus.

4. Water science for society

         4.1 Advances in observation, characterisation, and prediction of hydro-climatic extremes (floods, droughts, heat waves) and its compound and             cascade events.

         4.2 Water resource management, climate adaptation and mitigation: a user perspective.

         4.3 Capacity building, knowledge transfer and sustainable development.

5. Novel technologies and future missions: the future of water cycle research

          5.1 Water research and novel technologies. (e.g., AI, open science platforms, data intensive science, digital twins).

         5.2 Future EO missions and coming observing capabilities for water and hydrology research and applications. Preparing for the coming Sentinel            expansion and NG missions, new meteorological missions, new space and national capabilities.